A Potent Driver of Cytokine Storm Syndrome

Gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant global health issue due to their resistance to antibiotic therapy. In severe infections, bacteria shed endotoxins into the circulatory system, which are potent drivers of Cytokine Storm Syndrome. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over 2 million infections are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 23,000 deaths. From a national biodefense perspective, four species of bacteria have been classified as "Category A" biological threats as they pose a high risk to national security and public health. These include Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Yersinia pestis (plague), and Francisella tularensis (tularemia). The extracorporeal elimination of circulating endotoxin has previously been demonstrated to help rebalance the innate immune system, decrease levels of inflammatory mediators, and improve vascular function and hemodynamics.